Blow up the Gradebook?

A response to Dr. Chris Haskell’s presentation. A video of the presentation can be found at the bottom of this post.

As a teacher, I have been thinking about the role that grades play in my class. The thoughts of Dr. Haskell reflect many of the same thoughts and ideas that come from the superintendent of my school district. Both Dr. Haskell and my superintendent feel that homework, grades, and rigid classroom structures can inhibit student learning. Students often want to know what is absolutely necessary for me to know to get the grade they want in the class. The more experience I gain teaching, the more I realize that homework and grades are not necessary for students to learn and be successful. Just as Dr. Haskell mentions, educators and students would benefit from changing the way learning is structured in classes.

When it comes to homework, Dr. Haskell’s point about it being an indicator of parental involvement is spot on. I used to think that homework was a necessary part of school because that’s what my school experience was. But I’m starting to believe that’s not true. With elementary students, homework will almost always fall on parents. Occasionally there will be some self-motivated–and capable–students who can and will do their homework without being pushed by their parents. More often than not, Mom or Dad are the reason homework gets done. Students spend enough time working hard at school. I really think that they need time to be kids when they are at home.

Due dates aren’t something I’ve dealt much with as a teacher, but I have plenty of experience from the standpoint of a student. With my classroom, most things are completed the same day in class. The small amount of reading practice assigned to my students is due once a week, but that’s just to help me keep organized. As a student, I related to what Dr. Haskell said about due dates. If you give a week, I’ll take a week. I don’t know why that is, but it’s true. I have never been the kind of student who was motivated enough to get things done early unless I have a strong reason to. While I’m not sure that due dates should be eliminated completely, I think that teachers need to have flexibility with them. Teachers need to accept learning even when it doesn’t happen on their timetable. Most students need something to help them stay on track, so when used wisely, due dates can be useful.

Student choice is something that I have thought a lot about with the beginning of the new school year. With a quest-based learning model like Dr. Haskell described, there is a lot of room for students to have a choice in their learning. The idea of student choice is a place where my superintendent differs in opinion from Dr. Haskell. I had the “privilege” of sitting through a back to school meeting where our superintendent lectured that student choice and individualized learning are not realistic ideas for our classrooms. I think that he missed the point of student choice. With a quest-based learning model, students have different opportunities to show what they are learning. It’s not a “one size fits all” experience. As a student in a class using a quest model, I can say that I like it. I can see where I’m at and know what I need to do in order to be successful. I think that it would be awesome if all classes could be designed in similar ways.

There is some need to change how learning happens in classrooms. I’m not saying that traditional models need to be thrown out, but some ideas could go. Grades really don’t tell anything other than what your average success or effort was in a class. Grades don’t really show how much a student knows at that point in time. We punish them with a bad grade because they didn’t learn everything the first time around. I think that grades don’t acknowledge that learning can and should happen at any time. They always give a sense of finality. I would like to see educators move towards a model that rewards learning whenever it happens.

Throwing out grades will mean breaking from tradition, but if people were always afraid of letting go of traditions, we wouldn’t have the world we do today.

 

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Final Course Reflection

Course Reflection:

At the beginning of this course, I thought I had a pretty good idea about what it took to integrate technology into a lesson. But I realize now that I had a pretty basic understanding of what integration really meant, especially when it came to integrating technology. Integrating technology isn’t just finding a video that goes along with your lesson. It’s more than projecting a PowerPoint presentation on a screen. Integrating technology means you find tools appropriate for the situation that will help the learners get more from the instruction. Sometimes getting more from instruction means that the learners were more interested and engaged because there was a technology aspect.

As I have progressed through this course, I learned the importance of really checking out the tech tools you plan to use ahead of time. Sometimes when you are planning, it’s easy to see something that looks like it should work for the situation and not really check it out. When I was planning my activities and lessons, sometimes I would find a game or activity that would work for most of my students but not all. Even with technology you have to be thinking about each student as you integrate the tools into your instruction. You have to think full circle for your tech tools before you take it into the classroom. For example, I love to use a site called Kahoot to make quizzes for review. The very first time I used it in my class, I had forgotten that the answers would only be displayed on the projected screen and not on the students’ devices. The writing on the projector was small and a few students had a hard time participating because they didn’t say they couldn’t see. If I had taken the time to check Kahoot more than I did, I could have tried to prevent that situation.

Throughout this course I have surprised myself as my understanding of different aspects of technology changed. Reading about the different categories of tech tools helped me understand that technology can almost always be used for more ways than it was originally intended. One thing that comes to mind is the module on integrating social media. Being a second grade teacher, I was skeptical that I could really find a way that could apply to my classroom and my students. Once I realized that social media and networking wasn’t exclusive to the social media tools I knew, I found ways that would work for my students and made sense in a second-grade context. Now, when there is a different type of technology tool that comes to me, I try to think of all the different ways I can use it. It’s almost like a challenge now to find new ways to integrate technology.

Professionally, I feel like this course has helped me to feel like I can take risks when it comes to using technology. This winter when I had my final evaluation and observation by my administrator, I chose to use an integrated lesson that I made in this class for my observation. I used technology in a different way than I had ever done with my class. During the observation, my students were very excited about using Chromebooks and doing the activities which meant they got a little louder than I should have liked during an observation. But my principal was impressed that I would implement technology during an observation instead of doing something that would generally be considered “safe.” I feel like I need to take those risks and let my students experience technology as part of their education because it will only become a bigger part as they go.

My own teaching practice has become more open to technology as a result of this class. Before this course, I already used technology in my class, but now I am trying to find more effective ways. I have made it a point to teach my students some foundational skills for using different types of software. Instead of just letting my students go on a writing project and having them type away on a document, I have centered the writing activities around a specific skill I want them to learn how to do within a word processor. As an example, we did a “How to” writing project. One of the requirements was to put the steps into a list in a Google Doc. They needed to decide if their how to would be an ordered or unordered list. I was surprised at how the skill transferred into other aspects of our class. After learning about the different lists, students would point out times when we could have used one of the types. I have been amazed at how my students have taken a huge interest in technology as I have been bringing it into the classroom regularly.

Reflecting on the AECT standards, I can see that I am on the road to mastery. Most if not all of the projects can be used as proof of that. Through the indicators, it is clear that I have gained a level of mastery for the standards after completing each project.

Standard 1- With Standard 1, I feel like I was able to demonstrate understanding of the content knowledge through the indicators of creating and using as well as assessing/evaluating. The projects I created show that I can create as well as that I evaluated the tools I was using. Indicators for using and managing can also be included through anecdotal evidence after trying the projects I created in my own classroom.

Standard 2- I demonstrated understanding of content pedagogy as I created the technology integrated projects and lesson plans. I sought effective ways to use the technology in the lessons to enhance student learning. The indicator for creating shows that I can apply the technology to my teaching in a way that will help students learn better. I created lessons that would used technology that would be appealing and engaging to students thus helping me create more effective instruction. The indicator for using shows that I know how to implement the use of the technology effectively. In my lesson plans, I wrote detailed instructions for using the technology in the lesson or activity. I also thought of how different types of students would need adaptations for implementation.

Standard 3- This class doesn’t really address standard 3 which is about learning environments. While the projects in this class did not directly connect to standard 3, I can say that when it comes to Using I have taken what I have learned in this class and applied it to situations at my school regarding decisions on technology implementation. I have helped my administrator work with the rest of the teachers at my school to evaluate the current software we use to determine whether we should continue to use it in the future.

Standard 4- This standard isn’t specifically addressed in this course through the projects, but as a result of this course, I have been working on helping my school create more technology-rich learning environments.

Standard 5- Research was a big part of what was required in this class. Each week the blog posts I made showed understanding of the theoretical foundations for each topic covered. As I went through the modules, I also assessed and evaluated different pieces of technology by discussing relative advantages and making connections to content and practice.

Overall, I feel like I have come away from this course with a new desire to find reasons to use technology as a part of my instruction. I have watched my students get excited as I made a point to use more tech in my classroom during this course. I can tell that my students are more engaged during activities that involve technology than they are with traditional teaching methods. I’m not afraid to use technology in my classroom even if it means everything might go wrong. If it does, I’ve just learned what not to do.

Blog Self Evaluation

I made every blog post for this course and posted it before the end of each module. I preferred the blog format for discussing content over other methods I have used in other classes. Reading other students’ posts is faster than listening (such as on a VoiceThread.) It’s easier for me to remember the points I want to comment about when I can go back and quickly reread something. I feel like I made more substantial comments in this course than other courses because of the format.

Rubric

Content: Outstanding

As I wrote my blog posts, I felt like I made solid connections to the content and to personal experiences relating to the content. I tried to make connections that related to each topic as well as back up those connections with quotes from the readings.

Readings and Resources: Proficient

I feel like I could have made more connections to the readings and outside resources when I was writing my blog posts. I used quotes and made connections in each blog post, but I could have done more or gone more in depth. I did use APA style for citations on every quote as well as for posting the sources, so that part fits into outstanding and not proficient.

Timeliness: Proficient (but I feel the rubric is vague here.)

I tried to post to my blog before Monday, but that didn’t always happen. I had comments on my posts even if I did post on Monday so I feel like that doesn’t fit into the proficient category because it said that it was not in time for others to respond, but I still got responses. Timeliness would have been easier to measure if a specific day of the week was mentioned (such as saying timely posts were made by Friday or Saturday, or something like that.)

Response to Other Students: Outstanding

I always made my two responses to other students blogs and I felt like they were substantial. I tried to make connections between what they said and things that I learned or wrote about. I did not post comments that were things like “Wow, this was really good.” I made it a point to pick specific things that they talked about and add to what they said.

iOS Accessibility Features for Special Education

Accessibility features on technology devices make it so individuals with disabilities or impairments can use technology in their lives. All devices should have a settings menu where you can find all of the different accessibility features to improve the ease of use for someone. Apple products have a plethora of options to improve the ease of use for all users, disabled, impaired or not. As I was playing with all of the different features, I thought about some specific people who these tools would benefit. In this blog, as I talk about a few of the features, I will also cover some of the disabilities or impairments that would benefit from using these features. I used an Apple Ipad Pro running on iOS 11 to test the accessibility features.


The very first option on the Accessibility menu on my IPad was VoiceOver. This feature acts as a screen reader where every icon, button, or piece of text has the capability of being read. To access an app or push a button, the user must double-click. I found this challenging because I kept opening the wrong app or playing music on accident. I think I was impatient which made it more challenging. My IPad has a keyboard cover attached to it that made navigating with the VoiceOver a little bit easier. I could use the arrow keys to highlight different apps and then touch the screen to open. While testing out the VoiceOver, I found that many of my apps did not support the voice over feature. This came to a surprise to me because I thought that most apps would need to comply with a standard for accessibility.


While I was testing out the VoiceOver features I thought about this being a helpful feature for students with learning disabilities that cause them to be challenged by reading. I have had some students with severe learning disabilities that have made learning to read a significant struggle. It has often caused me to change activities we do because they rely heavily on reading. One student I am thinking of in particular would benefit from using the VoiceOver to help him navigate websites and read the content.
I also thought about it would be a great tool for someone with a visual impairment. The VoiceOver feature would make it so someone who may be blind or nearly blind be able to navigate an iPhone or iPad. Once they learned the gestures and layout of the iPad, they would have more success using the technology.


There are also other tools for visual impairments. When I was exploring, I found ways to adjust the colors for colorblind individuals as well as inverted color settings to make the contrast easier on the eyes. As I played around with sizing and the magnifier, I thought of a girl in one of my classes while I was in college. She was legally blind and read Braille, but she also had a cell phone and used it to text and check Facebook without any voiceover features turned on. On her phone, she had the text size as large as she could make it, then she held the phone about six inches from her face in front of her “good” eye where she could read the letters if they were large enough. The magnifier feature helped her zoom in on fixed size text so she could get it big enough to see. Some devices, such as on the iPad, allow the camera to be used as a magnifier. I thought that this would be a great tool for people who have a hard time reading small printed text. When I was using this feature, I thought about how it would benefit my mother who is always forgetting her reading glasses and holding papers as far away from her face as she can to be able to see it.

I was also impressed by the features for someone who is hearing impaired. On Apple devices, Siri has the option for text input rather than voice. This allows someone who is deaf, or even nonverbal, to use the functions of Siri without ever saying a word. There are options for connecting the device to hearing aids or making the sounds more friendly for those with hearing aids.

I also found the touch accommodations to be interesting and potentially useful. I have a cousin who recently became quadriplegic after a bad car accident. Now when he uses his phone, he has to use a stylus that is strapped to his hand. At first, when he was getting used to using his arms with their new limited mobility, he struggled with touching where he wanted so the wrong app would open up and he would have to start over. But with the ability to change the touch sensitivity, he has been able to make it so his phone only recognizes a touch after he holds it for a certain amount of time.

In education, the accessibility features of technology can help schools give individuals with disabilities or impairments the best education possible. In the readings, Roblyer mentions that as part of the IEP process, students may need a referral for assistive technology. With that process, an IEP team would look at technology ranging from “no tech” to “high tech” to help that individual be more successful in education or life in general (Roblyer, 2016). The accessibility features that are part different tech devices would be a low tech option for general education teachers to help students in their class use technology that is already part of regular routines. Teachers need to have a knowledge of these features so that when they get a student with a disability or impairment, they can come up with solutions for students without having to go through all of the steps to add assistive technology to an IEP. These accessibility features can make it so everyone can have access to technology and education.

 

Sources:

Roblyer, M. (2016). Integrating educational technology into teaching. 7th ed. Pearson Education.

Challenges of Integrating Technology into ELA Instruction

Technology can be a great tool for enhancing instruction; however, along with the positive aspects of integrating technology, there can be obstacles that make it difficult to integrate technology into different content areas. Language Arts instruction is an area that can be difficult to find ways to effectively integrate technology, especially in an elementary school setting. In an article by authors Barone and Wright, the point is made that literacy is shifting from the paper and pencil forms that have long been known to more interactive and adaptive literacies that involve technology (2013). Students need to learn to be literate in more ways than with just books. However, as pointed out by Barone and Wright, “Simply using software programs on computers does not prepare students for new literacies’ expectations,” (2013). We can expose students to all sorts of technology for instructional purposes, but it will take a deeper connection and interaction for students to really be able to gain from using technology in the classroom.

 

In an elementary school setting, integrating technology into ELA instruction can be a challenge because there is a lack of resources directed at elementary aged students. Many of the resources I have checked out for elementary ELA instruction rely heavily on students having solid reading skills. The tools would be better suited for older elementary or middle school students. Every time I have made my lesson plans with the integrated resources, I’ve thought about the handful of students I have who cannot effectively read on their own. Many of the games and practice tools I have found are time sensitive, so students who are not established readers will struggle. When I am looking for resources, I try to be conscious of how each student will be able to interact with the technology. With ELA activities, reading ability can play a huge role in students’ sense of success or failure. With math activities and games, students can often get by because they can just look for numbers. As a teacher, I find it hard to justify resources that won’t be suitable for all students. In second grade ELA, there are many activities that just don’t make the cut. To get past this challenge, it’s important for teachers to be aware of the activities and games they select for students to use. It’s easier to find ELA resources that would work for older students, and if I didn’t really look into the activities, I could end up sending my students to an activity that is way over the ability level of some students.

 

Sometimes integrating technology into ELA instruction in an elementary classroom is limited by students’ abilities to manipulate and use the technology itself. I love having my students type up stories and “publish” them by printing them out. But younger students need to be instructed on how to use word processors and sometimes computers in general before they can create an end product. That can take a significant amount of time that we just don’t have. When I have my students work on writing projects, it is a lot easier to skip the computer and have them handwrite it all. If I choose to not use the computers, I don’t have to plan to teach them how to access the program, save documents, or use a keyboard. I also don’t have to plan the extra time it takes my students to type instead of write. Realistically, if I want to make the best use of my instructional time for writing, I won’t have my students use the computer. However, I still choose to use computers and word processors in my writing instruction because sometimes the exposure to the tools and skills are more important than quickly finishing the writing projects. Overcoming this challenge requires flexibility from teachers on lesson pacing. Until students get used to using technology, it will take more time. When it comes to ELA instruction, it seems like there is barely enough time to hit everything we need to in a day without involving a computer, but if I teach my students how to type and use a word processor now, I will build a foundation for later lessons and the teachers in upper grades.

 

Another obstacle for integrating technology into ELA instruction is finding resources that fit into classroom and school budgets. Many of the tools I find and like cost money to use or to have all the features I want.  My school operates in a way that teachers can do whatever they want in their classrooms with technology as long as it doesn’t cost money. When I start looking at different apps, programs, or websites I would love to use in my ELA instruction and see that it costs money, I almost instantly lose interest. Websites with interactive e-books such as Tumblebooks require subscriptions to access the content. Sites that are designed to aid in foundational reading skills instruction often require a subscription for each student. Even when a subscription is as low as $6 per student, it adds up quickly. My classroom budget, year to year, is entirely dependent upon how many students I have in my class, and at my school, we see a lot of variation in the number of students in each grade every year. Because of variations in budgets, something may be affordable one year but out of the question the next. It makes me a little bitter when I see online games, activities, or tools that would fit perfectly with one of my reading units or grammar lessons but realize they cost money. When we are so strapped on our budgets, it’s hard to justify spending money on something that may only get used a few times a school year. If I’m going to pay money, this thing better be awesome. This obstacle can be overcome by looking for similar free alternatives, finding donations, writing grants, or working with administrators to find budget money for some of the tools you can justify.

 

Technology has a lot of potential to help teachers provide better instruction. When it comes to ELA, I struggle to find ways to effectively use technology because I value that instructional time. It’s hard to give an extra 20-30 minutes for playing practice games when I could have students do two or three things with pencil and paper during that time. But as I have learned to be more flexible in my teaching style, I see that students are more engaged in my language arts instruction when it involves technology which means the students learn more in the time spent on the activity. While there are obstacles that can limit a teacher’s desire or ability to use technology in ELA instruction, it is worth the trouble to find a solution for your classroom.

 

Sources

Barone, D., & Wright, T. E. (2013, December 23). Literacy Instruction with Digital and Media Technologies. Retrieved April 09, 2018, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/literacy-instruction-digital-and-media-technologies

Rationale for Using Technology in ELA instruction

Technology influences all content areas. English Language Arts (ELA) is no exception to that fact. Language Arts changes with the changes in technology. As mentioned by Roblyer, the definition of what it means to be literate is not the same now as it was in the past, (2016). Technology has impacted what skills someone needs in order to use and understand written and oral language. We live in a world where we navigate language in so many media formats that teachers need to teach their students how to make sense of it all. Technology is part of language now. It makes sense that it has its place in education.

Students need skills to navigate a digital world. As society becomes more reliant on technology, students must be taught how to interact with and use technology effectively. By integrating technology into ELA curriculum, teachers can create more effective instruction for their students.

Engaging

Technology connects with students in a way that traditional means do not. Technology is appealing which makes students more likely to participate willingly. This winter, during a lesson observation by my administrator, I chose to use a Kahoot quiz with my second graders to practice finding adjectives instead of having them write the answers down on paper. My administrator noted how much more involved my students wanted to be once they thought of the quiz as a game. Since that lesson, my students always ask if we can do a Kahoot with the lesson “even though it’s like a test.” Whenever I use technology with my students, I don’t have to remind them do stay on task or participate. They want to be involved and engaged.

In the reading about integrating technology into Language Arts, Roblyer mentions that technology such as ebooks, ereaders, and word processing help encourage students be motivated to do more reading and writing, (2016). By second grade, teachers often know which students will struggle with reading without significant intervention. In my class, I have a few students who won’t try to read because learning disabilities make it hard. When I give them an audiobook or ebook to read along with, they will try harder to read. It makes it easier to get something from a story without having to struggle and work for every sound in a word. When reading is very labor intensive for students, they don’t want to do it. The same thing goes for writing. The same students who struggle with reading in my class struggle with their writing. It’s not necessarily forming the letters and writing itself, but more of spelling and remembering ideas long enough to get them written down. This is why I love using word processors for those students. They can use a microphone to say what they want to write and “text to type” will do all of the writing. When they do type, they have spell check to help with spelling and grammar errors. Technology can make it easier for students to get their thoughts where they need to be.

Relevant

An advantage of integrating technology into language arts curriculum is it can help students see the purpose of learning different language topics. Students want and need to see the real-life application of what they learn, so they can buy in to the content. With my second grade students, sometimes they as why they need to remember certain grammar rules or spelling patterns. I always look for relevant ways to help them connect what we learn to real life. The easiest way to do that is through video games, Snapchat, and the internet. I point out that a lot of them play games where they can chat, and they need to be able to write well enough to communicate with their friends. To illustrate the importance of using commas correctly, I showed my class a video of a book called Eats, Shoots, & Leaves: Why, Commas Really Do Make A Difference and now they make connections between the video and what they read and write. Without access to technology, I would have had to go out and find that book. With access to technology, I was able to make commas relevant and something that mattered.

Authentic

Another advantage of using technology with language arts is that there are so many ways to use it to bring authentic experiences to the classroom. Technology is a big part of the world that students function in. They want to see and experience meaningful activities that connect to the content. Instead of only reading a textbook article on penguins, students can go to the internet and find their own articles about penguins. Then the students can use literacy and comprehension skills to evaluate the value and validity of the articles. Students are expected to transfer skills from the classroom context to real life, but without authentic practice, students may miss the mark. Even in my second grade classroom, my students want authentic experiences where they can really use their skills. Rather than just listening to their teacher talk about things like reading with good expression, my students can record themselves reading so that they can hear and see exactly how they read. When students practice in an authentic way, they make more connections about why the skills are useful. They can see real value in what they learn, so they hold on to it.

Technology is changing the way that we teach students, and that is a good thing. As people, we expect doctors to advance in the ways they treat illnesses and heal patience. That’s called best practice. Teachers need to be held to a similar standard. Approaches from the past may still work for teaching reading, but with technology there are new ways that qualify as best practice. Technology isn’t going away. It’s here and we need to use it to help teachers be the best they can.

Sources

Roblyer, M. (2016). Integrating educational technology into teaching. 7th ed. Pearson Education.

Using Digital Games in the Classroom

As an elementary teacher, I try to make learning fun and engaging for my students. I look for opportunities to bring games into my instruction because that’s something that students love. Every day I use games as part of my 20 to 30 minute math RTI (Response to Intervention) block. The games the students play require them to use and practice the same math skills we work on in our math lessons. Some of the games are digital games, but I also use a lot of board games. My students love having the chance to play games each day. It disguises the fact that they are “learning” because it feels like we’re just playing a game.

The same thing can happen with digital games in the classroom. I came across a video by Common Sense Education that gave some tips for using games for learning. One of the tips that stood out to me was “treat games as experiences, not instruction,” (Common Sense Education, 2016). I thought that this tip made a lot of sense specifically when trying to justify use of a game in the classroom. Games should not be a replacement for instruction. That is the job of the teacher. Games should be used to enhance instruction and enable students to gain experience with the subject matter.

Rebekah Stathakis an author and world languages teacher wrote an article for the website Education World that gave more good reasons for bringing games into education. One thing she said was that “students learn through the process of playing the game,” (Stathakis, 2013). This has a lot of truth to it. Students learn when they play video games on their own time. They learn how to do things and learn from their mistakes. By bringing games into the classroom, students can work and learn in low-stakes environments while still having the chance to learn. Stathakis also presented another reason for using games in the classroom that I thought was spot on. She said that “students build a variety of connections with content and can form positive memories of learning” while playing games (Stathakis, 2013). Making positive memories of learning stood out to me. I think that it’s important to always help students feel positively about what they are learning. For the most part, people play games with the intent of being happy. By bringing games into the classroom, students should feel happier thoughts towards the content and as a result, retain the content better.

In my second grade class, it is challenging to find and use digital games in English Language Arts. My experience incorporating games into my ELA instruction is very limited. There is a website called SpellingCity.com that has games for students to practice their spelling words. I put up the lists for the school year, and students can get online and practice whenever they want. I have used the games as part of my centers rotation and as an activity for students when they finish their online quizzes in the computer lab each week.

Another digital game that I have used with my students is a reading intervention program called IStation. It uses a variety of games and activities to help remediate or advance students in reading. The games in the program are isolated activities that do not connect to an overall goal. My students enjoy playing the games, though there are other games they would rather play.

In my experience with digital games in the classroom, I have found and used the most games in math. It seems like it’s either easier or more needed to make games for mathematics. Two math game sites I use with my class are Reflex math and Prodigy Math. Reflex is a fact fluency practice program where students answer basic math facts to play mini games similar to something they might play on a tablet or iPod. Prodigy Math is a turn based battle game where students answer math CCSS aligned questions to cast spells and defeat enemies. I incorporate both of these games into my daily math routines so students have 20 or so minutes to play games to reinforce the math topics they need.

Overall, I am all for using games in the classroom. Any way I can get my students interacting with and using the content is a win in my book. Games hold students attention and engage them in ways that practice pages cannot. Games should be one more tool that teacher have in their toolbox to reach students.

Common Sense Education. “Using Games in the Classroom.” YouTube, 22 Dec. 2016, youtu.be/o6IELVV2xLQ.

Stathakis, R. (2013). Five Reasons to Use Games in the Classroom. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/reasons-to-play-games-in-the-classroom.shtml